For people diagnosed with Lyme disease that have chronic headaches, memory problems, and meningitis
by Greg Lee
Have you ever driven along a foggy road? On a drive through the mountains, I was enveloped by a thick fog. I had to slow down to 10 miles per hour because I could only see a few feet in front of me. My anxiety would increase if I saw something in the road. With my knuckles tightly grasping the wheel, my mind was hyper-focused on not hitting another car or a tree. How is driving through the fog similar to inflammation in the brain from Lyme disease?
Similar to fog along the road, inflammation from Lyme disease can slow down the brain
Lyme disease produces toxins and lipoproteins which trigger the immune system to produce many different kinds of inflammation. In the cerebrospinal fluid of Lyme disease patients, multiple inflammatory compounds have been detected: Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Interleukin-8 (IL-8), Interleukin-12 (IL-12), Interleukin-18 (IL-18) and interferon-gamma (INF-γ) and the chemokine ligands CXCL12 and CXCL131. In another lab study, primary microglia cells, which are macrophages found in the brain and spinal cord, co-cultured with B. burgdorferi released inflammatory compounds IL-6, IL-8, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand-2 (CCL2), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand-3 (CCL3), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand-4 (CCL4), and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand-5 (CCL5)2. Increased levels of an excitotoxin called quinolinic acid have been detected especially in Lyme patients with central nervous system inflammation3. Lyme patients with brain inflammation can have a variety of symptoms.
Lyme inflammation can aggravate symptoms of pain, swelling, poor concentration, and mood swings
Elevated inflammatory compounds have been associated with physical, mental, and emotional symptoms in patients. Some of these people report symptoms of brain fog4, concentration difficulties, memory recall problems, forgetfulness5, confusion, being spaced out, feeling ADD (attention deficit disorder), unable to process information, easily overwhelmed, and easily distractable. Physical symptoms have been described as pressure pushing out from the inside of the head, meningitis, chronic headaches6, dizziness7, vision problems8, stiffness, and a thick feeling in the head. Other people have described feeling depressed, suicidal, hopeless9, a lack of motivation, anxious10, and a lack of joy. Some medications help with reducing symptoms associated with Lyme inflammation.
Medications like Celebrex and Low Dose Naltrexone (LDN) can help relieve symptoms
LDN has been shown to reduce inflammatory symptoms, depression, and cognitive issues11. Patients with Lyme disease have reported significant reductions in pain levels and inflammatory symptoms from LDN and Celebrex. Minocycline and doxycycline also reduce inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) , IL-6, and IL-812. Unfortunately, some patients do not respond to LDN or Celebrex. And other patients may experience photosensitive skin reactions13 or digestion problems with extended antibiotic use14.
Are there natural treatments and remedies that can help to reduce inflammatory symptoms in the brain with minimal side effects?
Fortunately, there are five methods that can help to alleviate symptoms of Lyme disease inflammation in the central nervous system
These five methods include treatments and remedies that help patients to quickly relieve and eliminate the symptoms of inflammation in the nervous system. These methods have been effective in patients that have not improved with anti-inflammatory medications. These treatments and remedies draw out inflammation and toxins directly or have inhibited inflammatory cytokines in lab and animal studies.
Reduce CNS Inflammation Method #1: Cupping and bloodletting
Cupping combined with bloodletting has been practiced for thousands of years in Asia and the Middle East. Lyme patients with CNS inflammation have multiple suction cups placed on the head and neck to draw out toxins from the nervous system. Next, the cups are removed and needles are inserted to make very small holes to draw out the toxins. The needles are removed and the cups are placed back on. In each cup, a small quantity of fluid is drawn out of the body. In cupping studies, the extracted blood has been found to be high in toxins15 and inflammatory compounds16. Lyme disease patients that become more inflamed with antibiotics report greater mental clarity, reduced swelling and head pain, and increased emotional ease immediately after receiving cupping and bloodletting. Liposomal herbs also help with reducing inflammatory symptoms in the central nervous system.
Reduce CNS Inflammation Method #2: Liposomal herbs and supplements
A liposome is a microscopic particle that is surrounded with a fat also called a lipid. Liposomal remedies are more effective at penetrating inside the brain17 and the nervous system18 than their non-liposomal equivalents. When anti-inflammatory herbs and supplements are delivered via liposomes, patients with inflammatory symptoms experience greater relief of head pressure, sleep disturbances, and less painful emotions. These liposomal mixtures contain compounds that are formulated for reducing cytokines and chemokines that have been found in Lyme patients with inflammation and CNS symptoms and detected in lab studies.
Inflammatory cytokine / chemokine: anti-inflammatory herbs and supplements
CCL2: Bupleurum, Chinese name: Chai Hu19, Salvia miltiorrhiza Chinese name: Dan Shen20, and Huperzine A21.
CCL3: Radix Sophorae, Chinese name: Ku Shen22 and Scrophularia, Chinese name: Xuan Shen23.
CCL4: Scrophularia, Chinese name: Xuan Shen24.
CCL5: Lemongrass, Chinese name: Xiang Mao Cao25 and Nelumbo nucifera, lotus seed, Chinese name: Lian Zi26.
CXCL12: Nigella sativa or black cumin seed, Chinese name: Hei Zhong Cao Zi27 and Astragalus membranaceus, Chinese name: Huang Qi28.
CXCL13: none found at the time of publication.
IL-6: Pueraria, Chinese name: Ge Gen29, Gotu Kola, Chinese name: Ji Xue Cao30, Andrographis paniculata, Chinese name: Chuan Xin Lian31, Isatidis root, Chinese name: Ban Lan Gen32, Polygonum cuspidatum, Japanese knotweed,
Chinese name: Hu Zhang33, and Scutellaria, Chinese name: Huang Qin34.
IL-8: Turmeric, Chinese name: Jiang Huang35, Tree peony, Paeonia Suffruticosa, Chinese name: Mu Dan Pi36, Scutellaria baicalensis, Chinese name: Huang Qin37, Schisandra chinensis, Chinese name: Wu Wei Zi38, Ginger, Chinese name: Gan Jiang39, and Crataegus fruit, Chinese name: Shan Zha40.
IL-12: Peony, Chinese name: Bai Shao41, Scutellaria baicalensis, Chinese name: Huang Qin42, Salvia root, Chinese name: Dan Shen43, and Stephania tetrandra, Chinese name: Fang Ji44.
IL-18: Emblica officinalis fruit, Ayurvedic name: Amalaki, Chinese name: Yu Gan Zi45, Cordyceps, Chinese name: Dong Chong Xia Cao46, Crataegus fruit, Chinese name: Shan Zha47, Nigella sativa, Chinese name: Hei Zhong Cao Zi48, Turmeric, Chinese name: Jiang Huang49, Pulsatilla, Chinese name: Bai Tou Weng50, and Salvia miltiorrhiza, Chinese name: Dan Shen51.
IFN-γ: Stephania tetrandra root, Chinese name: Fang Ji52, Acanthopanax senticosus, Chinese name: Ci Wu Jia53, Taraxacum officinale, Chinese dandelion, Chinese name: Pu Gong Ying54, and Peony, Chinese name: Bai
Quinolinic acid: Sida cordifolia, Chinese name: Ke Dong, Ayurvedic name: Bala56. Essential oils have also helped to clear inflammation in the nervous system.
Reduce CNS Inflammation Method #3: Sublingual essential oils
Lyme disease patients with CNS inflammation are given a customized formula of essential oils to take under their tongue (sublingual) and also in liposomal form to reduce inflammation in the nervous system. Anti-inflammatory essentail oils may include: lemongrass57, clove58, Nigella sativa or black cumin seed59, ginger60, turmeric61, and thyme62. Patients report better sleep, reduced head pressure, less post nasal drip, and greater mental clarity. Not only essential oils, but also Frequency Specific Microcurrent can be used to reduce inflammation.
Reduce CNS inflammation Method #4: Frequency Specific Microcurrent
Frequency Specific Microcurrent uses millionth of an ampere electrical currents to reduce toxicity and inflammation. Frequencies for decreasing inflammation, detoxifying, and promoting healing are combined with frequencies to target inflamed areas of the brain and nervous system. These anti-inflammatory frequencies can be directed into areas of the brain like the forebrain, midbrain, cerebellum, pineal, pituitary, basal ganglia, cingulate, meninges, prefrontal cortex, or the temporal lobe63. Acupuncture and moxabustion can also help to target CNS inflammation.
Reduce CNS inflammation Method #5: Acupuncture and moxabustion
In human and animal studies, acupuncture64 and herb partition moxabustion have been effective at reducing inflammatory compounds65. Herb partition moxabustion places on a patient’s skin powdered anti-inflammatory herbs: cones of artemisia argyii (ai ye) over a combination of aconite cortex, Chinese name: Fu Zi or Cao Wu or Chuan Wu, Safflower, Chinese name: Hong Hua, and Salvia root, Chinese name: Dan Shen. The herbs are ignited to release their medicinal properties to reduce inflammation. Many treatments and remedies can help to address neurological inflammation symptoms.
Multiple remedies and treatments can help to reduce symptoms of neurological inflammation from Lyme disease
Similar to driving out of the fog, the proper combination of cupping and bloodletting, liposomal anti-inflammatory remedies, essential oils, Frequency Specific Microcurrent, acupuncture and moxabustion helps your brain to overcome the symptoms of neurological inflammation from Lyme disease. Since some of these remedies and treatments require specialized training, work with a Lyme literate Chinese medicine practitioner to develop a proper, safe, and effective strategy for your condition.
>> Next step: Come to our evening lecture: Getting Rid of Lyme Disease in Frederick, Maryland on Monday January 5th at 6pm to learn more about treatments, essential oils, herbs, and homeopathic remedies for pain and inflammation from Lyme disease, Bartonella, toxoplasmosis, drug resistant arthritis, managing weight issues caused by toxins, reducing brain overwhelm, Epstein-Barr virus, adenovirus, brucellosis, Babesia, mold, parasites, abnormal fatigue, and pain. https://goodbyelyme.com/events/get_rid_lyme
1. Bransfield RC. The psychoimmunology of lyme/tick-borne diseases and its association with neuropsychiatric symptoms. Open Neurol J. 2012;6:88-93. doi: 10.2174/1874205X01206010088. Epub 2012 Oct 5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23091569
2. Myers TA, Kaushal D, Philipp MT. Microglia are mediators of Borrelia burgdorferi-induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y neuronal cells. PLoS Pathog. 2009 Nov;5(11):e1000659. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1000659. Epub 2009 Nov 13. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2771360/
3. Halperin JJ, Heyes MP. Neuroactive kynurenines in Lyme borreliosis. Neurology. 1992 Jan;42(1):43-50. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1531156
4. Raffa RB. A proposed mechanism for chemotherapy-related cognitive impairment (‘chemofog’). J Clin Pharm Ther. 2011 Jun;36(3):257-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2710.2010.01188.x. Epub 2010 Aug 24. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3249621/
5. Abu Faddan NH, Shehata GA, Abd Elhafeez HA, Mohamed AO, Hassan HS, Abd El Sameea F. Cognitive function and endogenous cytokine levels in children with chronic hepatitis C. J Viral Hepat. 2014 Dec 15. doi: 10.1111/jvh.12373. [Epub ahead of print] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25496114
6. Borde JP, Meier S, Fingerle V, Klier C, Hübner J, Kern WV. CXCL13 may improve diagnosis in early neuroborreliosis with atypical laboratory findings. BMC Infect Dis. 2012 Dec 10;12:344. doi: 10.1186/1471-2334-12-344. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3528660/
7. Wensky AK, Furtado GC, Marcondes MC, Chen S, Manfra D, Lira SA, Zagzag D, Lafaille JJ. IFN-gamma determines distinct clinical outcomes in autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Immunol. 2005 Feb 1;174(3):1416-23. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15661899
8. Owen LA, Hartnett ME. Soluble mediators of diabetic macular edema: the diagnostic role of aqueous VEGF and cytokine levels in diabetic macular edema. Curr Diab Rep. 2013 Aug;13(4):476-80. doi: 10.1007/s11892-013-0382-z. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23649946
9. Smith DF. Quest for biomarkers of treatment-resistant depression: shifting the paradigm toward risk. Front Psychiatry. 2013 Jun 18;4:57. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00057. eCollection 2013. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3684787/
10. R. K., D. M. A., C. N., S. N. W., C. D. Oxidative imbalance and anxiety disorders. Curr Neuropharmacol. 2014 Mar;12(2):193-204. doi: 10.2174/1570159X11666131120223530. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3964749/
11. Brown N, Panksepp J. Low-dose naltrexone for disease prevention and quality of life. Med Hypotheses. 2009 Mar;72(3):333-7. doi: 10.1016/j.mehy.2008.06.048. Epub 2008 Nov 28. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19041189
12. Bernardino AL, Kaushal D, Philipp MT. The antibiotics doxycycline and minocycline inhibit the inflammatory responses to the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. J Infect Dis. 2009 May 1;199(9):1379-88. doi: 10.1086/597807. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3697124/
13. Drucker AM, Rosen CF. Drug-induced photosensitivity: culprit drugs, management and prevention. Drug Saf. 2011 Oct 1;34(10):821-37. doi: 10.2165/11592780-000000000-00000. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21879777
14. Knecht H, Neulinger SC, Heinsen FA, Knecht C, Schilhabel A, Schmitz RA, Zimmermann A, dos Santos VM, Ferrer M, Rosenstiel PC, Schreiber S, Friedrichs AK, Ott SJ. Effects of β-lactam antibiotics and fluoroquinolones on human gut microbiota in relation to Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea. PLoS One. 2014 Feb 28;9(2):e89417. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0089417. eCollection 2014. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3938479/
15. Schockert T. [Observations on cupping. High toxin concentration in blood from cupping]. MMW Fortschr Med. 2009 Jun 4;151(23):20. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19591347
16. Liu CZ, Lei B, Zheng JF. [Randomized control study on the treatment of 26 cases of acne conglobata with encircling acupuncture combined with venesection and cupping]. [Article in Chinese] Zhen Ci Yan Jiu. 2008 Dec;33(6):406-8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19288903
17. Ohara M, Ohyama Y. Delivery and application of dietary polyphenols to target organs, tissues and intracellular organelles. Curr Drug Metab. 2014 Jan;15(1):37 47. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24328691
18. Alhariri M, Azghani A, Omri A. Liposomal antibiotics for the treatment of infectious diseases. Expert Opin Drug Deliv. 2013 Nov;10(11):1515-32. doi: 10.1517/17425247.2013.822860. Epub 2013 Jul 26. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23886421
19. Liu A, Tanaka N, Sun L, Guo B, Kim JH, Krausz KW, Fang Z, Jiang C, Yang J, Gonzalez FJ. Saikosaponin d protects against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity by inhibiting NF-κB and STAT3 signaling. Chem Biol Interact. 2014 Sep 27;223C:80-86. doi: 10.1016/j.cbi.2014.09.012. [Epub ahead of print] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25265579
20. Liu C, Li J, Wang L, Wu F, Huang L, Xu Y, Ye J, Xiao B, Meng F, Chen S, Yang M. Analysis of tanshinone IIA induced cellular apoptosis in leukemia cells by genome-wide expression profiling. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2012 Jan 16;12:5. doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-12-5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3398275/
21. Tian GX, Zhu XQ, Chen Y, Wu GC, Wang J. Huperzine A inhibits CCL2 production in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice and in cultured astrocyte. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2013 Jul-Sep;26(3):757-64. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24067473
22. Kan QC, Zhu L, Liu N, Zhang GX. Matrine suppresses expression of adhesion molecules and chemokines as a mechanism underlying its therapeutic effect in CNS autoimmunity. Immunol Res. 2013 May;56(1):189-96. doi: 10.1007/s12026-013-8393-z. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23549837
23. Motojima H, Villareal MO, Iijima R, Han J, Isoda H. Acteoside inhibits type Ι allergy through the down-regulation of Ca/NFAT and JNK MAPK signaling pathways in basophilic cells. J Nat Med. 2013 Oct;67(4):790-8. doi: 10.1007/s11418-013-0753-4. Epub 2013 Mar 15. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23494816
24. Motojima H, Villareal MO, Iijima R, Han J, Isoda H. Acteoside inhibits type Ι allergy through the down-regulation of Ca/NFAT and JNK MAPK signaling pathways in basophilic cells. J Nat Med. 2013 Oct;67(4):790-8. doi: 10.1007/s11418-013-0753-4. Epub 2013 Mar 15. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23494816
25. Francisco V, Costa G, Figueirinha A, Marques C, Pereira P, Miguel Neves B, Celeste Lopes M, García-Rodríguez C, Teresa Cruz M, Teresa Batista M. Anti-inflammatory activity of Cymbopogon citratus leaves infusion via proteasome and nuclear factor-κB pathway inhibition: contribution of chlorogenic acid. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013 Jun 21;148(1):126-34. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2013.03.077. Epub 2013 Apr 10. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23583902
26. Li G, Xu H, Zhu S, Xu W, Qin S, Liu S, Tu G, Peng H, Qiu S, Yu S, Zhu Q, Fan B, Zheng C, Li G, Liang S. Effects of neferine on CCL5 and CCR5 expression in SCG of type 2 diabetic rats. Brain Res Bull. 2013 Jan;90:79-87. doi: 10.1016/j.brainresbull.2012.10.002. Epub 2012 Oct 9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23063706
27. Badr G, Mohany M, Abu-Tarboush F. Thymoquinone decreases F-actin polymerization and the proliferation of human multiple myeloma cells by suppressing STAT3 phosphorylation and Bcl2/Bcl-XL expression. Lipids Health Dis. 2011 Dec 16;10:236. doi: 10.1186/1476-511X-10-236. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3339355/
28. Li Q, Bao JM, Li XL, Zhang T, Shen XH. Inhibiting effect of Astragalus polysaccharides on the functions of CD4+CD25 highTreg cells in the tumor microenvironment of human hepatocellular carcinoma. Chin Med J (Engl). 2012 Mar;125(5):786-93. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22490576
29. Liu X, Mei Z, Qian J, Zeng Y, Wang M. Puerarin partly counteracts the inflammatory response after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion via activating the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. Neural Regen Res. 2013 Dec 5;8(34):3203-15. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5374.2013.34.004. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25206641
30. Giribabu N, Srinivasarao N, Swapna Rekha S, Muniandy S, Salleh N. Centella asiatica Attenuates Diabetes Induced Hippocampal Changes in Experimental Diabetic Rats. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2014;2014:592062. doi: 10.1155/2014/592062. Epub 2014 Aug 5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4139016/
31. Kou W, Sun R, Wei P, Yao HB, Zhang C, Tang XY, Hong SL. Andrographolide suppresses IL-6/Stat3 signaling in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps. Inflammation. 2014 Oct;37(5):1738-43. doi: 10.1007/s10753-014-9902-5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24803294
32. Wang CX, Cao HY, Cheng M, Xu HR, Wang MZ, Xu LL, Yu HY, Li Q. [The influence of representative herbs of clearing and detoxifying drugs effect on inflammatory cytokines expression of mice lung homogenate infected by influenza virus FM1]. [Article in Chinese] Zhonghua Shi Yan He Lin Chuang Bing Du Xue Za Zhi. 2012 Dec;26(6):415-8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23627017
33. Wang CX, Cao HY, Cheng M, Xu HR, Wang MZ, Xu LL, Yu HY, Li Q. [The influence of representative herbs of clearing and detoxifying drugs effect on inflammatory cytokines expression of mice lung homogenate infected by influenza virus FM1]. [Article in Chinese] Zhonghua Shi Yan He Lin Chuang Bing Du Xue Za Zhi. 2012 Dec;26(6):415-8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23627017
34. Wang CX, Cao HY, Cheng M, Xu HR, Wang MZ, Xu LL, Yu HY, Li Q. [The influence of representative herbs of clearing and detoxifying drugs effect on inflammatory cytokines expression of mice lung homogenate infected by influenza virus FM1]. [Article in Chinese] Zhonghua Shi Yan He Lin Chuang Bing Du Xue Za Zhi. 2012 Dec;26(6):415-8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23627017
35. Saelee C, Thongrakard V, Tencomnao T. Effects of Thai medicinal herb extracts with antipsoriatic activity on the expression on NF-κB signaling biomarkers in HaCaT keratinocytes. Molecules. 2011 May 10;16(5):3908-32. doi: 10.3390/molecules16053908. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21555979
36. Oh GS, Pae HO, Choi BM, Jeong S, Oh H, Oh CS, Rho YD, Kim DH, Shin MK, Chung HT. Inhibitory effects of the root cortex of Paeonia suffruticosa on interleukin-8 and macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 secretions in U937 cells. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003 Jan;84(1):85-9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12499080
37. Luo W, Wang CY, Jin L. Baicalin downregulates Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharideupregulated IL-6 and IL-8 expression in human oral keratinocytes by negative regulation of TLR signaling. PLoS One. 2012;7(12):e51008. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0051008. Epub 2012 Dec 11. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3519831/
38. Bae H, Kim R, Kim Y, Lee E, Jin Kim H, Pyo Jang Y, Jung SK, Kim J. Effects of Schisandra chinensis Baillon (Schizandraceae) on lipopolysaccharide induced lung inflammation in mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012 Jun 26;142(1):41-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2012.04.009. Epub 2012 Apr 21. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22543173
39. Podlogar JA, Verspohl EJ. Antiinflammatory effects of ginger and some of its components in human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells. Phytother Res. 2012 Mar;26(3):333-6. doi:10.1002/ptr.3558. Epub 2011 Jun 23. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21698672
40. Zhang J, Liang R, Wang L, Yan R, Hou R, Gao S, Yang B. Effects of an aqueous extract of Crataegus pinnatifida Bge. var. major N.E.Br. fruit on experimental atherosclerosis in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013 Jul 9;148(2):563-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2013.04.053. Epub 2013 May 16. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23685195
41. Wang YN, Zhang Y, Wang Y, Zhu DX, Xu LQ, Fang H, Wu W. The beneficial effect of total glucosides of paeony on psoriatic arthritis links to circulating Tregs and Th1 cell function. Phytother Res. 2014 Mar;28(3):372-81. doi: 10.1002/ptr.5005. Epub 2013 Apr 23. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23610010
42. Kim ME, Kim HK, Park HY, Kim DH, Chung HY, Lee JS. Baicalin from Scutellaria baicalensis impairs Th1 polarization through inhibition of dendritic cell maturation. J Pharmacol Sci. 2013;121(2):148-56. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23419270
43. Sun A, Liu H, Wang S, Shi D, Xu L, Cheng Y, Wang K, Chen K, Zou Y, Ge J. Salvianolic acid B suppresses maturation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells by activating PPARγ. Br J Pharmacol. 2011 Dec;164(8):2042-53. doi: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01518.x. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3246666/
44. Feng D, Mei Y, Wang Y, Zhang B, Wang C, Xu L. Tetrandrine protects mice from concanavalin A-induced hepatitis through inhibiting NF-kappaB activation. Immunol Lett. 2008 Dec 22;121(2):127-33. doi: 10.1016/j.imlet.2008.10.001. Epub 2008 Nov 4. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18992279
45. Aruna R, Geetha A, Suguna P, Suganya V. Rutin rich Emblica officinalis Geart. fruit extract ameliorates inflammation in the pancreas of rats subjected to alcohol and cerulein administration. J Complement Integr Med. 2014 Feb 7;11(1):9-18. doi: 10.1515/jcim-2013-0023. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24516008
46. Zhao K, Li Y, Zhang H. Role of dongchongxiacao (Cordyceps) in prevention of contrastinduced nephropathy in patients with stable angina pectoris. J Tradit Chin Med. 2013 Jun;33(3):283-6. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24024319
47. Zhang J, Liang R, Wang L, Yan R, Hou R, Gao S, Yang B. Effects of an aqueous extract of Crataegus pinnatifida Bge. var. major N.E.Br. fruit on experimental atherosclerosis in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013 Jul 9;148(2):563-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2013.04.053. Epub 2013 May 16. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23685195
48. Ahmad I, Muneer KM, Tamimi IA, Chang ME, Ata MO, Yusuf N. Thymoquinone suppresses metastasis of melanoma cells by inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2013 Jul 1;270(1):70-6. doi: 10.1016/j.taap.2013.03.027. Epub 2013 Apr 10. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23583630
49. Somanawat K, Thong-Ngam D, Klaikeaw N. Curcumin attenuated paracetamol overdose induced hepatitis. World J Gastroenterol. 2013 Mar 28;19(12):1962-7. doi:
50. Wang ZL, Sun PP, Li TX, Li SX. [Pulsatilla decoction treat inflammatory bowel disease by activating NLRP3]. [Article in Chinese] Zhong Yao Cai. 2012 Aug;35(8):1280-
51. Zhou ZH, Weng Q, Zhou JH, Zhou J. Extracts of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge on the cytokines of rat endometriosis models. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2012 Apr 2;9(3):303-14. eCollection 2012. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23983360
52. Feng D, Mei Y, Wang Y, Zhang B, Wang C, Xu L. Tetrandrine protects mice from concanavalin A-induced hepatitis through inhibiting NF-kappaB activation. Immunol Lett. 2008 Dec 22;121(2):127-33. doi: 10.1016/j.imlet.2008.10.001. Epub 2008 Nov 4. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18992279
53. Lin QY, Jin LJ, Cao ZH, Xu YP. Inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase by Acanthopanax senticosus extract in RAW264.7 macrophages. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Jul 23;118(2):231-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2008.04.003. Epub 2008 Apr 11. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18486372
54. Zhang X, Xiong H, Li H, Cheng Y. Protective effect of taraxasterol against LPS-induced endotoxic shock by modulating inflammatory responses in mice. Immunopharmacol
Immunotoxicol. 2014 Feb;36(1):11-6. doi: 10.3109/08923973.2013.861482. Epub 2013 Nov 29. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24286370
55. Wang YN, Zhang Y, Wang Y, Zhu DX, Xu LQ, Fang H, Wu W. The beneficial effect of total glucosides of paeony on psoriatic arthritis links to circulating Tregs and Th1 cell function. Phytother Res. 2014 Mar;28(3):372-81. doi: 10.1002/ptr.5005. Epub 2013 Apr 23. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23610010
56. Swathy SS, Panicker S, Nithya RS, Anuja MM, Rejitha S, Indira M. Antiperoxidative and antiinflammatory effect of Sida cordifolia Linn. on quinolinic acid induced neurotoxicity. Neurochem Res. 2010 Sep;35(9):1361-7. doi: 10.1007/s11064-010-0192-5. Epub 2010 May 25. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20499166
57. Francisco V, Costa G, Figueirinha A, Marques C, Pereira P, Miguel Neves B, Celeste Lopes M, García-Rodríguez C, Teresa Cruz M, Teresa Batista M. Anti-inflammatory activity of Cymbopogon citratus leaves infusion via proteasome and nuclear factor-κB pathway inhibition: contribution of chlorogenic acid. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013 Jun 21;148(1):126-34. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2013.03.077. Epub 2013 Apr 10. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23583902
58. Grespan R, Paludo M, Lemos Hde P, Barbosa CP, Bersani-Amado CA, Dalalio MM, Cuman RK. Anti-arthritic effect of eugenol on collagen-induced arthritis experimental model. Biol Pharm Bull. 2012;35(10):1818-20. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23037170
59. Badr G, Mohany M, Abu-Tarboush F. Thymoquinone decreases F-actin polymerization and the proliferation of human multiple myeloma cells by suppressing STAT3 phosphorylation and Bcl2/Bcl-XL expression. Lipids Health Dis. 2011 Dec 16;10:236. doi: 10.1186/1476-511X-10-236. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3339355/
60. Podlogar JA, Verspohl EJ. Antiinflammatory effects of ginger and some of its components in human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells. Phytother Res. 2012 Mar;26(3):333-6. doi: 10.1002/ptr.3558. Epub 2011 Jun 23. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21698672
61. Song Y, Ge W, Cai H, Zhang H. Curcumin protects mice from coxsackievirus B3-induced myocarditis by inhibiting the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/Akt/nuclear factor-κB pathway. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. 2013 Nov;18(6):560-9. doi: 10.1177/1074248413503044. Epub 2013 Sep 19. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24057864
62. A. Ocaña and G. Reglero, “Effects of Thyme Extract Oils (from Thymus vulgaris, Thymus zygis, and Thymus hyemalis) on Cytokine Production and Gene Expression of oxLDL-Stimulated THP-1-Macrophages,” Journal of Obesity, vol. 2012, Article ID 104706, 11 pages, 2012. doi:10.1155/2012/104706 https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jobe/2012/104706/
63. Frequency Specific Microcurrent Advanced Summary Protocols. https://www.frequencyspecific.com/faq.php#protocol
64. Qi YC, Xiao XJ, Duan RS, Yue YH, Zhang XL, Li JT, Li YZ. Effect of acupuncture on inflammatory cytokines expression of spastic cerebral palsy rats. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2014 Jun;7(6):492-5. doi: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60081-X. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25066401
65. Bao CH, Zhao JM, Liu HR, Lu Y, Zhu YF, Shi Y, Weng ZJ, Feng H, Guan X, Li J, Chen WF, Wu LY, Jin XM, Dou CZ, Wu HG. Randomized controlled trial: moxibustion and acupuncture for the treatment of Crohn’s disease. World J Gastroenterol. 2014 Aug 21;20(31):11000-11. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v20.i31.11000. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4138481/
Image courtesy David Wright of Wikimedia Commons https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Downhill_through_the_Tulgy_Wood_to_Bonby_-_geograph.org.uk_-_1066231.jpg